Sovereign Power

Article 32 Sovereign Power
(1) The sovereign power resides in the Nation.

(2) The Grand Duke exercises it in compliance with this Constitution and the laws of the country.

(3) He shall has no powers other than those formally vested in him by the Constitution and the special laws passed pursuant to the Constitution, without prejudice to Article 3.

                         Section 1 The Grand Duke's Prerogative

Article 33 Executive Power
The Grand Duke is the head of the State, the symbol of its unity and the guarantee of national independence. He exercises the executive power in conformity with the Constitution and the laws of the country.

Article 34 Sanctioning and Promulgation of Laws
The Grand Duke sanctions and promulgates the laws. He makes his resolve known within three months of the vote in the Chamber.

Article 35 Appointments
(1) The Grand Duke appoints to civil and military posts, in compliance with and subject to any exceptions made by the law.

(2) No office remunerated by the State may be created other than in pursuance of a legislative provision.

Article 36 Regulations and Orders
The Grand Duke enacts the regulations and orders necessary for carrying laws into effect, but he may never suspend the laws themselves or dispense with their enforcement.

Article 37 Treaties
(1) The Grand Duke concludes treaties. These do not come into effect until they have been sanctioned by law and published in the manner laid down for the publication of laws.

(2) The treaties referred to in Chapter III, Section 4, Article 114 (5).

(3) Secret treaties are abolished.

(4) The Grand Duke enacts the regulations and orders necessary for carrying the treaties into effect in accordance with the procedure governing measures for the execution of laws and with the effects attaching to such measures, without prejudice to matters reserved to the law by the Constitution.

(5) No cession, exchange, or adjunction of territory is effected except pursuant to a law.

(6) The Grand Duke commands the armed force; he declares war and the cessation of hostilities after having been authorized by a vote in the Chamber taken under the conditions laid down in Article 114 (5).

Article 38 Pardon

The Grand Duke has the right to remit or reduce penalties awarded by the judges, except as provided for in respect of members of the Government.

Article 39 Minting Money

The Grand Duke has the right to mint money in pursuance of the law.

Article 40 Awarding Titles and Nobility

The Grand Duke has the right to bestow titles of nobility without being able to attach any privilege to them.

Article 41 Awarding Orders

The Grand Duke confers civil and military orders, while complying with the provisions of the law.

Article 42 Prince
(1) The Grand Duke may have Himself represented by a Prince of the blood, who shall bear the title of Lieutenant of the Grand Duke and reside in the Grand Duchy.

(2) This representative shall take an oath to observe the Constitution before entering upon the exercise of his powers.

Article 43 Remuneration
(1) The Civil List is fixed at three hundred thousand gold francs a year.

(2) It may be changed by law at the beginning of each reign. The budget law may allocate each year to the Sovereign Household the sums needed to cover representation expenses.

Article 44 Residence
The Grand Ducal Palace in Luxembourg and the Chateau de Berg are reserved for the residence of the Grand Duke.

Article 45 Countersignature
All provisions of the Grand Duke require the countersignature of a responsible member of the Government.

                                            Section 2 Legislature

Article 46 Chamber of Deputies
Each law requires the assent of the Chamber of Deputies.

Article 47 Proposing Bills
(1) The Grand Duke addresses to the Chamber the proposals or bills of law he wishes to submit for adoption.

(2) The Chamber has the right to propose Government Bills to the Grand Duke.

Article 48 Authoritative Interpretation
The interpretation of laws by way of authority may only be effected through the law.

                                             Section 3 Judiciary

Article 49 Judgments
(1) Justice is rendered in the name of the Grand Duke by the courts and the tribunals.

(2) Judgments and decisions are enforced in the name of the Grand Duke.

Article 49bis International Institutions
The exercise of the powers reserved by the Constitution to the
legislature, executive, and judiciary may be temporarily vested by treaty in institutions governed by international law.